Project Management

Change Mangement Items to Add to Project Plan

1      Project Change Management Plan

1.1   Change Management Approach

Every project experiences change. If change is not formally managed, there is little likelihood that a project will be completed on time and within budget. Change can affect a project’s scope, cost, quality, risk, schedule, and work products, as well as the functioning of the project team.

The IT Monitoring & Enterprise Alert – Recommend Architecture & Tools Project will adopt a collaborative change management approach emphasizing an understanding and agreement among all parties about what the project changes are and how they will be managed.

When the project team needs to determine whether there is a change, the baseline documents are always the reference point. The baseline document for this phase of the project will be this document, the “Project Definition” document. Anything that is not covered in the baseline or that alters the baseline is a change. The process allows for change during the project life cycle, but puts the change in the context of the latest documented agreement.

1.2   Types of Change

Change will be classified as either design change or non-discretionary change. Non-discretionary change results from a failure of someone to do what he/she previously committed to, or the failure of some previously planned event to occur, and is sometimes tracked as lost time. A design change is an enhancement/correction to the system after initial specifications have been approved.

1.3   Change Budget

The purpose of the change budget is to provide an appropriation (of dollars and/or hours) that a project can draw from when change is encountered. The Project Team manages the change budget, providing approval for change expenditures when a change is approved or denying change expenditures when a change is deferred or rejected.

1.4   Change Management Process

The project team will manage changes by using the process described in this subsection.

1.4.1 Submit Change Request

Any team member may submit a written change request to the Project Manager.  

1.4.2 Perform a Preliminary Evaluation

The Project Manager reviews each change request and determines whether to defer, reject, or accept the change. If the change is accepted, the Project Manager estimates the effort to perform the impact analysis. Because an impact analysis of significant effort can cause a change to the current project schedule and/or budget, the client must decide whether to move to impact analysis.

1.4.3 Analyze Impact

If the change is to undergo an impact analysis, the Project Manager will assign the change request to a project team member. For our project, simple technical implementation, the technical team assumes responsibility for the impact analysis and involves additional technical staff as necessary.

The assigned resource(s) and the Project Manager first review the estimate for the effort of the impact analysis, and then work together to determine the effort, cost, schedule, and resources needed to implement the proposed change.

1.4.4 Review and Implement the Change

The Project Manager submits the impact analysis report to Project Sponsors for review.

¨       If the change is approved, the appropriate processes are followed to update the work plan, project documents, and the change is implemented. 

¨       If the change is rejected, the Project Manager logs the decision and reason and closes the change request.

¨       If the change is deferred, the date for the next review is set.

1.5   Roles for Change Management

Role (Contact Name) Role
Project Manager Receives change requests
Project Core Team Performs preliminary evaluation
Project Sponsors Final authority to approve a change for implementation

August 28, 2009 Posted by | PMP, Project Initiation, Scope Management | 2 Comments

Starting the Project out Right

First – make sure all stakeholders are at the first meeting. Also ask the Project Sponsor to tell everyone you are the Project Manager (transferring authority). Talk about the processes you will use and the communication everyone can excpect from you.

Once you have a definitive scope, write a requriements document to meet that scope and distriubute it and sign it off. After this point, any change in scope should go through  your defined scope mamangement process.

Do your schedule as a team and construct a Work Breakdown Structure. Break each task down until it is no more than 40 hours or less. Add them back up to get the schedule. If management doesn’t want the date you’ve come up with ask them which scope they want to drop. Remind them that each feature takes time from you (as PM), the coder, the tester, the documenter and suppport.

As you move from requirements to specifications and coding, adding scope is even more costly. It disrupts everyone. Try to put it in a subsequent release.

Above all, make sure you communicate schedule, risks and status very frequently; and hopefully have a team site on SharePoint that everyone can see.

August 20, 2009 Posted by | PMP, Project Initiation, Project Management | Leave a comment

Linkedin Profile

Check out my Linkdin Profile at www.linkedin.com/in/dritter5!  I’d love to hear your comments on what services you would like provided.

 

Donna

June 11, 2009 Posted by | Business Analyst, Living Your Best Life, Outsourcing, Phase Review Process, PMBOK, PMI, PMO, PMP, Project Initiation, Project Management, Risk Management, Schedule Management, Training, Writing and Documentaiton | | 3 Comments

How to Write a Project Charter

The project charter is the document that formally authorizes a project. The project charter provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. A project manager is identified and assigned as early in the project as is feasible. The project manager should always be assigned prior to the start of planning (if possible) and preferably while the project charter is being developed.

 

In my experience this is not always possible, but I highly recommend that you follow this and as the very least, as soon as you (or someone else) is assigned as the Project Manager, draft this document and have it signed off by the stakeholders.

 

A project initiator or sponsor external to the project organization, at a level that is appropriate to funding the project, should issue the project charter. Projects are usually chartered and authorized external to the project organization by an enterprise, a government agency, a company, a program organization, or a portfolio organization, as a result of one or more of the following:

 

·         A market demand (e.g., a car company authorizing a project to build more fuel-efficient cars in response to gasoline shortages)

·         A business need (e.g., a training company authorizing a project to create a new course to increase its revenues)

·         A customer request (e.g., an electric utility authorizing a project to build a new substation to serve a new industrial park)

·         A technological advance (e.g., an electronics firm authorizing a new project to develop a faster, cheaper, and smaller laptop after advances in computer memory and electronics technology)

·         A legal requirement (e.g., a paint manufacturer authorizing a project to establish guidelines for handling toxic materials)

·         A social need (e.g., a nongovernmental organization in a developing country authorizing a project to provide potable water systems, latrines, and sanitation education to communities suffering from high rates of cholera).

 

These stimuli can also be called problems, opportunities, or business requirements. The central theme of all these stimuli is that management must make a decision about how to respond and what projects to authorize and charter.

 

Make sure to have these requirements documented and signed off as they will be used to create the Project Scope Document.

 

Project selection methods involve measuring value or attractiveness to the project owner or sponsor and may include other organizational decision criteria. Project selection also applies to choosing alternative ways of executing the project.

 

Chartering a project links the project to the ongoing work of the organization. In some organizations, a project is not formally chartered and initiated until completion of a needs assessment, feasibility study, preliminary plan, or some other equivalent form of analysis that was separately initiated.

 

Developing the project charter is primarily concerned with documenting the business needs, project justification, current understanding of the customer’s requirements, and the new product, service, or result that is intended to satisfy those requirements. The project charter, either directly, or by reference to other documents, should address the following information:

 

·        Requirements that satisfy customer, sponsor, and other stakeholder needs, wants and expectations

·        Business needs, high-level project description, or product requirements that the project is undertaken to address

·        Project purpose or justification

·        Assigned Project Manager and authority level

·        Summary milestone schedule

·        Stakeholder influences

·        Functional organizations and their participation

·        Organizational, environmental and external assumptions

·        Organizational, environmental and external constraints

·        Business case justifying the project, including return on investment

·        Summary budget.

 

During subsequent phases of multi-phase projects, the Develop Project

Charter process validates the decisions made during the original chartering of the project. If required, it also authorizes the next project phase, and updates the charter.

 

Inputs:

Contract (When Applicable)

A contract from the customer’s acquiring organization is an input if the project is being done for an external customer.

 

Project Statement of Work

 

The statement of work (SOW) is a narrative description of products or services to be supplied by the project. For internal projects, the project initiator or sponsor provides the statement of work based on business needs, product, or service requirements. For external projects, the statement of work can be received from the customer as part of a bid document, for example, request for proposal, request for information, request for bid, or as part of a contract. The SOW indicates a:

 

·        Business need – an organization’s business need can be based on needed training, market demand, technological advance, legal requirement, or governmental standard.

·        Product scope description – documents the product requirements and characteristics of the product or service that the project will be undertaken to create. The product requirements will generally have less detail during the initiation process and more detail during later processes, as the product characteristics are progressively elaborated. These requirements should also document the relationship among the products or services being created and the business need or other stimulus that causes the need. While the form and substance of the product requirements document will vary, it should always be detailed enough to support later project planning.

·        Strategic plan – all projects should support the organization’s strategic goals. The strategic plan of the performing organization should be considered as a factor when making project selection decisions.

 

Enterprise Environmental Factors

 

When developing the project charter, any and all of the organization’s enterprise environmental factors and systems that surround and influence the project’s success must be considered. This includes items such as, but not limited to:

 

·        Organizational or company culture and structure

·        Governmental or industry standards (e.g., regulatory agency regulations, product standards, quality standards, and workmanship standards)

·        Infrastructure (e.g., existing facilities and capital equipment)

·        Existing human resources (e.g., skills, disciplines, and knowledge, such as design, development, legal, contracting, and purchasing)

·        Personnel administration (e.g., hiring and firing guidelines, employee performance reviews, and training records)

·        Company work authorization system

·        Marketplace conditions

·        Stakeholder risk tolerances

·        Commercial databases (e.g., standardized cost estimating data, industry risk study information, and risk databases)

·        Project management information systems (e.g., an automated tool suite, such as a scheduling software tool, a configuration management system, an information collection and distribution system, or web interfaces to other online automated systems).

 

Organizational Process Assets

 

When developing the project charter and subsequent project documentation, any and all of the assets that are used to influence the project’s success can be drawn from organizational process assets. Any and all of the organizations involved in the project can have formal and informal policies, procedures, plans, and guidelines whose effects must be considered. Organizational process assets also represent the organizations’ learning and knowledge from previous projects; for example, completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets can be organized differently, depending on the type of industry, organization, and application area. For example, the organizational process assets could be grouped into two categories:

 

·         Organization’s processes and procedures for conducting work:

o    Organizational standard processes, such as standards, policies (e.g., safety and health policy, and project management policy), standard product and project life cycles, and quality policies and procedures (e.g., process audits, improvement targets, checklists, and standardized process definitions for use in the organization)

o    Standardized guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteria

o    Templates (e.g., risk templates, work breakdown structure templates, and project schedule network diagram templates)

o     Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to satisfy the specific needs of the project

o     Organization communication requirements (e.g., specific communication technology available, allowed communication media, record retention, and security requirements)

o     Project closure guidelines or requirements (e.g., final project audits, project evaluations, product validations, and acceptance criteria)

o    Financial controls procedures (e.g., time reporting, required expenditure and disbursement reviews, accounting codes, and standard contract provisions)

o     Issue and defect management procedures defining issue and defect controls, issue and defect identification and resolution, and action item tracking

o     Change control procedures, including the steps by which official company standards, policies, plans, and procedures—or any project documents—will be modified, and how any changes will be approved and validated

o     Risk control procedures, including risk categories, probability definition and impact, and probability and impact matrix

·        Procedures for approving and issuing work authorizations. Organizational corporate knowledge base for storing and retrieving information:

o     Process measurement database used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products

o     Project files (e.g., scope, cost, schedule, and quality baselines, performance measurement baselines, project calendars, project schedule network diagrams, risk registers, planned response actions, and defined risk impact)

o    Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base (e.g., project records and documents, all project closure information and documentation, information about both the results of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance information, and information from the risk management effort) and defect management database containing issue and defect status, control information, issue and defect resolution, and action item results

o     Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official company standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents

o     Financial database containing information such as labor hours, incurred costs, budgets, and any project cost overruns.

 

Develop Project Charter: Tools and Techniques

 

Project Selection Methods

Project selection methods are used to determine which project the organization will select. These methods generally fall into one of two broad categories:

 

·        Benefit measurement methods that are comparative approaches, scoring models, benefit contribution, or economic models.

·        Mathematical models that use linear, nonlinear, dynamic, integer, or multi-objective programming algorithms.

 

Project Management Methodology

 

A project management methodology defines a set of Project Management Process Groups, their related processes and the related control functions that are consolidated and combined into a functioning unified whole. A project management methodology may or may not be an elaboration of a project management standard. A project management methodology can be either a formal mature process or an informal technique that aids a project management team in effectively developing a project charter.

 

Project Management Information System

 

The Project Management Information System (PMIS) is a standardized set of automated tools available within the organization and integrated into a system. The PMIS is used by the project management team to support generation of a project charter, facilitate feedback as the document is refined, control changes to the project charter, and release the approved document.

 

Expert Judgment

 

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs needed to develop the project charter. You will see this technique used in many of the Project Processes. Such judgment and expertise is applied to any technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training, and is available from many sources, including:

 

·         Other units within the organization

·         Consultants

·         Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors

·         Professional and technical associations

·         Industry groups.[i]

 

 

[i]  2007 Project Management Institute, Four Campus Blvd., Newton Square, PA 17903


November 16, 2008 Posted by | PMP, Project Initiation | | 12 Comments

Construtcing a Project Charter – the Beginning of the Project Scope

 

 

The project charter is the document that formally authorizes a project. The project charter provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. A project manager is identified and assigned as early in the project as is feasible. The project manager should always be assigned prior to the start of planning, and preferably while the project charter is being developed.

 

A project initiator or sponsor external to the project organization, at a level that is appropriate to funding the project, issues the project charter. Projects are usually chartered and authorized external to the project organization by an enterprise, a government agency, a company, a program organization, or a portfolio organization, as a result of one or more of the following:

 

A market demand (e.g., a car company authorizing a project to build more fuel-efficient cars in response to gasoline shortages)

A business need (e.g., a training company authorizing a project to create a new course to increase its revenues)

A customer request (e.g., an electric utility authorizing a project to build a new substation to serve a new industrial park)

A technological advance (e.g., an electronics firm authorizing a new project develop a faster, cheaper, and smaller laptop after advances in computer memory and electronics technology)

A legal requirement (e.g., a paint manufacturer authorizing a project to establish guidelines for handling toxic materials)

A social need (e.g., a nongovernmental organization in a developing country authorizing a project to provide potable water systems, latrines, and sanitation education to communities suffering from high rates of cholera).

These stimuli can also be called problems, opportunities, or business requirements. The central theme of all these stimuli is that management must make a decision about how to respond and what projects to authorize and charter. Project selection methods involve measuring value or attractiveness to the project owner or sponsor and may include other organizational decision criteria. Project selection also applies to choosing alternative ways of executing the project.

Chartering a project links the project to the ongoing work of the organization. In some organizations, a project is not formally chartered and initiated until completion of a needs assessment, feasibility study, preliminary plan, or some other equivalent form of analysis that was separately initiated. Developing the project charter is primarily concerned with documenting the business needs, project justification, current understanding of the customer’s requirements, and the new product, service, or result that is intended to satisfy those requirements. The project charter, either directly, or by reference to other documents, should address the following information:

Requirements that satisfy customer sponsor, and other stakeholder needs, wants and expectations;

 

Business needs, high-level project description, or product requirements that the project is undertaken to address

Project purpose or justification

Assigned Project Manager and authority level

Summary milestone schedule

Stakeholder influences

Functional organizations and their participation

Organizational, environmental and external assumptions

Organizational, environmental and external constraints

Business case justifying the project, including return on investment

Summary budget.

 

During subsequent phases of multi-phase projects, the Develop Project

Charter process validates the decisions made during the original chartering of the project. If required, it also authorizes the next project phase, and updates the charter.

 

Contract (When Applicable)

A contract from the customer’s acquiring organization is an input if the project is being done for an external customer.

Project Statement of Work:

The statement of work (SOW) is a narrative description of products or services to be supplied by the project. For internal projects, the project initiator or sponsor provides the statement of work based on business needs, product, or service requirements. For external projects, the statement of work can be received from the customer as part of a bid document, for example, request for proposal, request for information, request for bid, or as part of a contract. The SOW indicates a:

 

Business need – an organization’s business need can be based on needed training, market demand, technological advance, legal requirement, or governmental standard.

Product scope description – documents the product requirements and characteristics of the product or service that the project will be undertaken to create. The product requirements will generally have less detail during the initiation process and more detail during later processes, as the product characteristics are progressively elaborated. These requirements should also document the relationship among the products or services being created and the business need or other stimulus that causes the need. While the form and substance of the product requirements document will vary, it should always be detailed enough to support later project planning.

Strategic plan – all projects should support the organization’s strategic goals. The strategic plan of the performing organization should be considered as a factor when making project selection decisions.

 

Enterprise Environmental Factors:

When developing the project charter, any and all of the organization’s enterprise environmental factors and systems that surround and influence the project’s success must be considered. This includes items such as, but not limited to:

 

Organizational or company culture and structure

Governmental or industry standards (e.g., regulatory agency regulations, product standards, quality standards, and workmanship standards)

Infrastructure (e.g., existing facilities and capital equipment)

Existing human resources (e.g., skills, disciplines, and knowledge, such as design, development, legal, contracting, and purchasing)

Personnel administration (e.g., hiring and firing guidelines, employee performance reviews, and training records)

Company work authorization system

Marketplace conditions

Stakeholder risk tolerances

Commercial databases (e.g., standardized cost estimating data, industry risk study information, and risk databases)

Project management information systems (e.g., an automated tool suite, such as a scheduling software tool, a configuration management system, an information collection and distribution system, or web interfaces to other online automated systems.

 

Organizational Process Assets

When developing the project charter and subsequent project documentation, any and all of the assets that are used to influence the project’s success can be drawn from organizational process assets. Any and all of the organizations involved in the project can have formal and informal policies, procedures, plans, and guidelines whose effects must be considered. Organizational process assets also represent the organizations’ learning and knowledge from previous projects; for example, completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets can be organized differently, depending on the type of industry, organization, application area. For example, the organizational process assets could be grouped into two categories:

 

 Organization’s processes and procedures for conducting work:

·    Organizational standard processes, such as standards, policies (e.g., safety and health policy, and project management policy), standard product and project life cycles, and quality policies and procedures (e.g., process audits, improvement targets, checklists, and standardized process definitions for use in the organization)

·    Standardized guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteria templates (e.g., risk templates, work breakdown structure templates, and project schedule network diagram templates)

·    Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to satisfy the specific needs of the project

·    Organization communication requirements (e.g., specific communication technology available, allowed communication media, record retention, and security requirements)

·    Project closure guidelines or requirements (e.g., final project audits, project evaluations, product validations, and acceptance criteria)

·    Financial controls procedures (e.g., time reporting, required expenditure and disbursement reviews, accounting codes, and standard contract provisions)

·    Issue and defect management procedures defining issue and defect controls, issue and defect identification and resolution, and action item tracking

·    Change control procedures, including the steps by which official company standards, policies, plans, and procedures—or any project documents—will be modified, and how any changes will be approved and validated

·    Risk control procedures, including risk categories, probability definition and impact, and probability and impact matrix

·    Procedures for approving and issuing work authorizations.

 

Organizational corporate knowledge base for storing and retrieving information:

·    Process measurement database used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products

·    Project files (e.g., scope, cost, schedule, and quality baselines, performance measurement baselines, project calendars, project schedule network diagrams, risk registers, planned response actions, and defined risk impact)

·    Information and lessons learned knowledge base (e.g., project records and documents, all project closure information and documentation, information about both the results of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance information, and information from the risk management effort)

·    Issue and defect management database containing issue and defect status, control information, issue and defect resolution, and action item results

·    Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official company standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents

·    Financial database containing information such as labor hours, incurred costs, budgets, and any project cost overruns.

 

Develop Project Charter: Tools and Techniques

 

Project Selection Methods

Project selection methods are used to determine which project the organization will select. These methods generally fall into one of two broad categories:

Benefit measurement methods that are comparative approaches, scoring models, benefit contribution, or economic models.

Mathematical models that use linear, nonlinear, dynamic, integer, or multi-objective programming algorithms.

Project Management Methodology

A project management methodology defines a set of Project Management Process Groups, their related processes and the related control functions that are consolidated and combined into a functioning unified whole. A project management methodology may or may not be an elaboration of a project management standard. A project management methodology can be either a formal mature process or an informal technique that aids a project management team in effectively developing a project charter.

Project Management Information System

The Project Management Information System (PMIS) is a standardized set of automated tools available within the organization and integrated into a system. The PMIS is used by the project management team to support generation of a project charter, facilitate feedback as the document is refined, control changes to the project charter, and release the approved document.

Expert Judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs needed to develop the project charter. Such judgment and expertise is applied to any technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training, and is available from many sources, including:

Other units within the organization

Consultants

Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors

Professional and technical associations

Industry groups.

 

October 23, 2008 Posted by | Project Initiation, Project Management, Scope Management | , , | Leave a comment